November 30, 2020
Ubuzima

Igisubizo kuri Malaria:Havumbuwe mikorobe ibuza udukoko dutera malaria kwinjira mu mibu

Abahanga muri siyansi batangaje ko bavumbuye ‘microbe’ ituma udukoko (parasites) dutera malaria tutagera mu mibu.Ikipe y’aba bahanga muri Kenya no mu Bwongereza ivuga ko iyi ari intambwe ikomeye mu kurwanya iyi ndwara.

Malaria ikwirakwizwa no kurumwa n’imibu ifite udukoko tuyitera, kurinda iyo mibu kugira utwo dukoko byarinda abantu kuyandura.

Iyo microbe iri mu bwoko bw’izitwa Microsporidia MB, yavumbuwe mu bushakashatsi bwakozwe ku mibu yo kunkombe z’ikiyaga cya Victoria muri Kenya. Iba mu rura no mu gitsina cy’imibu.

Aba bashakashatsi nta mubu n’umwe babonye ufite iyi microbe ubasha kugira udukoko dutera malaria muri wo.

Amasuzuma yo muri laboratoire yatagajwe muri Nature Communicationsyemeje ko iyo microbe irinda imibu utwo dukoko.

Microsporidias ni utunyabuzima duto cyane two mu bwoko bwa ‘fungi’ cyangwa dusa nazo, natwo tubeshwaho no kuba mu kindi kinyabuzima.

Gusa, izi microsporidias nshya zabonetse zo zishobora kugirira akamaro umubu, zabonetse muri 5% by’imibu yose yakozweho ubushakashatsi.

Ubu buvumbuzi busobanuye iki?

Dr Jeremy Herren wo mu kigo International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe) muri Kenya yabwiye BBC dukesha iyi nkuru ati: “amakuru dufite ubu ni uko ku 100% bihagarika malaria”.

Yongeraho ati: “Urebye bizaba bitunguranye. Ntekereza ko abantu bazabona ko ari intambwe ikomeye”.

Buri mwaka malaria yica abantu barenga 400,000 ku isi cyane cyane mu bihugu biri mu nzira y’amajyambere, benshi muri bo ni abana bari munsi y’imyaka itanu.

Nubwo hari intambwe nini yatewe mu kurwanya malaria hakoreshejwe inzitiramibu n’imiti iyica ibi bimaze imyaka myinshi. Benshi babona ko hakenewe uburyo bushya bwo gutsinda malaria.

Iyo microbe ihagarika malaria ite?

Haracyari amakuru arambuye y’uko bigenda agikeneye gutangazwa n’abahanga.

Gusa Microsporidia MB ishobora gutegura ubwirinzi bw’umubu ku kintu cyose cyashaka kuwanduza udukoko runaka.

Cyangwa se kuba iyo microbe iri mu mubu bituma umubu uhinduka ahantu udukoko dutera malaria tudashobora kuba.

Izi microbe zigaragara ko zitura iteka (igihe cyose) aho zageze. Isuzuma ry’abahanga ryerekanye ko zigenda ziyongera bityo no gukumira malaria bikamara igihe kirekire.

Ibi byakoreshwa ryari mu kurwanya malaria?

Nibura 40% by’imibu yo mu gace runaka ikenera guterwa iyi microbe kugira ngo habeho kurinda malaria.

Iyi microbe ishobora guhererekanywa mu mibu mikuru, kandi umubu w’ingore uyanduza imibu uturaze (guturaga amagi).

Ubu rero, abashakashatsi bari gushakisha uburyo bubiri bw’ingenzi bwo kongera imibu ifite iyi microbe.

Iyi microbe ikora uduce duto cyane dushobora kunyanyagizwa ku bwinshi ngo tugere mu yindi mibu.

Imibu y’ingabo (ubusanzwe itarumana) ishobora guterwa iyi microbe muri laboratoire ikarekurwa kugira ngo ijye kwanduza imibu y’ingore mu gihe zibonanye.

Prof Steven Sinkins wo mu kigo cy’ubushakashatsi cya kaminuza ya Glasgow yabwiye BBC ati: “Ni ubuvumbuzi bushya. Twishimiye cyane ubushobozi bwabwo mu kurwanya malaria. Bufite ubushobozi bukomeye”.

Ntabwo ari ubwa mbere kurinda indwara byaba bigeragejwe hakoreshejwe microbe. Ubwoko bwa ‘bacteria’ yitwa Wolbachia bwagaragaje ko butuma bigora imibu gukwiza indwara izwi nka ‘dengue fever’.

Ni iki gikurikiraho?

Abahanga muri siyansi bakeneye kumenya uburyo iyi microbe ikwirakwira, ubu bafite gahunda zo gukora andi magerageza muri Kenya.

Gusa, ubu buryo buratanga ikizere kuko izi microbe zabonetse mu yindi mibu, kandi kurinda indwara hakoreshejwe microbe bikaba atari ikintu gishyashya.

Iyi microbe basanze itica imibu ku buryo byagira ingaruka ku rusobe rw’ibindi binyabuzima bitunzwe no kurya imibu.

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